The report from Shubhi Aggarwal (SPA Student)


Here is a report from Ms. Shubhi Aggarwal that was hearing from car driver at Satoli Village, Uttarakhand. The report is so important for thinking on Livelihood at Uttarakhand as below. I thanks to Shubhi for this precious contribution.

Information from Kishan (driver to Almora and Jageshwar)

reported by Ms. Shubhi Aggarwal, hearing at 22th JAN 2013


  • Is found where the land has rocks. Its roots intertwine in the gaps between the rocks. Roots absorb water from the soil and therefore, no other tree can grow nearby.
  • PINE WOOD – used for construction and burning. Timber used in construction catches termites and therefore, requires to be changed within 10 years.
  • PINE OIL – used for making glue (gum) and as kitchen oil.
  • PINE LEAF – proposed for generating electricity, by the government.


  • The roots retain water in the soil. Thus, natural springs sprung up nearby oak trees.
  • OAK WOOD – used for making beams and posts.

Wherever the leaf of pine and oak falls, a tree is grown.


  • Require less sun and fertile soil.


  • Wood used as decorative elements such as carved doors, windows or carved beams.
  • The carving work is called likhai, in Hindi.
  • Very hard wood and therefore, carving is possible.
  • Grows on land with high amount of water, near natural springs.
  • Scarcely available these days (in those regions)
  • The people who knew this craft of carving are not left.

Pseudo-farming: Terraced farming on land with rocks and sand. It is done not for growing vegetation but only to show the government that since they have worked on the land, it belongs to them.

Shrines on Roads: Wherever accidents have occurred, the victim’s relatives form a shrine. It acts as a notation of a dangerous point.

Quara River: A local river. A tributary of Kosi River. Acts as the boundary between Nainital District and Almora District. A natural boundary chosen by government because it is permanent.

Monolithic Rock Mountains: Even Pine does not grow there because there are no gaps through which the roots can penetrate.

Mountains made up of many rocks: Pine grows because the roots can penetrate through the gaps and settle.

Soft Rocks : on breaking become sand instead of soil. Therefore, very hard to cultivate. Needs fertilisers and khaad to convert it to soil.

Hindu Cremation of Mountain People: The dead body is burned only at the junction(sangam) of two rivers and a Shiva, temple should be nearby.


  • Construction on very steep slope. “It’s like the walls have been pasted on the slope”, says Kishan.
  • No Waste Management: has lead to pigs, eagles, dogs in the area.
  • No construction on government’s land.

rhenin について

中谷礼仁(なかたに のりひと)歴史工学、アーキオロジスト。早稲田大学建築史研究室所属、教授、千年村プロジェクト、日本生活学会、日本建築学会など。著書に『動く大地、住まいのかたち』、『セヴェラルネス+』など。
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